Here we are geekos, back in action! Sorry it’s been a while, but let me just assure you we’re back on track, raging to meet the deadlines and to, well, have some fun :)
The fourth part of our command line for beginners series. Go hack!
Come join us in beautiful Bejing for the first ever openSUSE Summit in Asia
Today we’re introducing a new series, called ‘Command Line Tuesdays‘. Why command line Tuesdays? Because in this series, everyday computer enthusiasts like yours truly, will try to step a little out of bounds of the Graphical User Interface (GUI) Culture, which is today synonymous to ‘making stuff easier for the masses‘.
openSUSE welcomes Google Summer of Code 2014 participants. Thanks to Google, openSUSE has an excellent number of slots and an equally excellent number of mentors and students for Google Summer of Code 2014. Throughuout the summer, students participanting in this program will code for openSUSE and its sister organizations ownCloud, MATE and Zorp and help them move forward. The best part of GSoC is that most of the code written by students will go upstream and will benefit openSUSE in general also. Along with this, we have an equally good range of projects that will improve the existing openSUSE architecture.
The list of successful students are :
- Travel Support Program application – Karthik Senthil
- Playlist Functionality for ownCloud Music App – Volkan
- ownCloud Calendar Application in angularJS – Raghu Nayyar
- openSUSE GSOC ideas: Cool live flash – Zsolt Peter Basak
- Open Source Event Manager (OSEM): Refactor user management model - Stella Rouzi
- Open Source Event Manager (OSEM): Implemention Organizer Dashboard – cbruckmayer
- MATE: Port from deprecated GStreamer 0.10 – Michal Ratajsky
- Integrate Snapper Snapshot browsing into openSUSE Desktop tools - Oguz Kayral
- Implement an application-level LBaaS driver for Zorp – Péter Vörös
- Extend Git-Review to support BitBucket – xystushi
- Event Splash page for Visitors In Open Source Event Manager Application. – Gopesh Tulsyan
- ePub support in Atril (MATE) – Avishkar gupta
- Add Snapshot management API to libvirt Xenlight driver – David Kiarie
- Improving the functionality of the extensions system in Caja – Alexandervdm
In the following weeks we will talk a lot more about these projects and get to know these students well.
Lets brew some code now.
If you have fun, the rest is easy…
This one is nearly identical to the MATE desktop, but already includes a few minor bug fixes and some additional applications:
are added to the (already huge) list of available applications.
Quoting Jigish Gohil:
classic is so much better than standard gnome i wonder why it is not standard
BTW: openSUSE Education releases always contain the latest official openSUSE updates and other cool stuff, so you should be able to get an up-to date live system up and running in a few seconds/minutes (depending on your hardware) – which can also be installed on your local hard disk with just a few mouse clicks. Just click on the “Live-Install” icon on the desktop.
You want to join the team? Just ping us at #opensuse-education. We are hiring community members to help out on web work and marketing (be warned: we currently pay in honor and fun).
Eppur si muove! Even though we sometimes feel there’s a sort of a standstill once first major bugs are fixed in a new release and it settles on our machine, that’s not the case by any viable metric. The openSUSE team works diligently on delivering a new release (openSUSE 13.2) ever since 13.1 was released, and among them, we find the artwork team, which is brainstorming the creation and subsequent selection of the new default wallpaper of the next openSUSE release (the awesome picture your desktop defaults to after installation).
Spreading the word about our project has again become a little bit easier. As announced during the Opening Keynote at oSC14 the reimbursement program for locally produced materials is BACK!
We would like to thank Jim Henderson, who will lead the team, Shawn Dunn, and Alexandros Vennos for volunteering their time to manage the requests. The program is funded with up to $200 US per event with a limit of $2000 US per quarter. The initiative is no limited to events as in small local conferences. If you need material for a local LUG meeting or if you can produce material for a “permanent” display of openSUSE in a University or other public place of interest use this program.
How does it work?
The process is outlined in the wiki and will share the Travel Support Program application. Basically you will need to submit a request through the application prior to the time of need. The team will evaluate the information and get back to you in a reasonable amount of time. The team may also decide that it may be worth sending out a booth box instead of producing material locally. If you accept the booth box the request will be handled for you if booth boxes are available at the time. After you have approval you can go ahead and produce the material for the event/promotion campaign. Once the event is completed provide a report, blog post on lizards or your own blog for example and submit your receipts. That’s it. For permanent displays, the “event” is obviously “never” over, thus you’d just submit your receipt after you setup the display (hang up the posters), send along a picture and some advertisement, possibly on social media and that’s it.
We tried to keep things as simple as possible while still assuring that there’s some verifiable bang for the buck for our project. After all having posters hanging in someone’s basement does not hep us find more users or contributors.
A word on the booth boxes and larger events. A list of events where we would like to have people represent our project is in the works and will soon appear on the wiki. Booth boxes for those events have been set aside. Keep an eye out for an announcement about the events list and a call for advocates to represent the project. As a hint, OSCON is happening from July 20-24 in Portland Oregon and we have no one yet organizing a local team to show off openSUSE.
The local production reimbursement program is live and you can start using it today. As we are just starting out there are bound to be some rough edges, thus please be patient, provide as much feedback as possible about the process and the handling of things to allow everyone involved to improve the initiative for everyone that might want to take advantage of it.
Go and spread the word about openSUSE and Have a lot of fun…
The openSUSE-Education team is proud to present a special, 64-bit edition of openSUSE Edu Li-f-e with the MATE desktop environment.
The MATE desktop was choosen as default desktop manager as it looks close to the pictures in their textbook, however latest GNOME desktop is also available at the login screen. MATE is well known for being a traditional desktop environment, a fork of the classic GNOME 2 session. It uses a two-panel layout and darkish theme, as well as a neat collection of educational apps, such as gElemental, Scilab, Xcos, Scinotes, Geany, Inkscape, Synfig Studio, Bluefish, Epoptes, and LTSP.
Default applications include the Pidgin multi-protocol instant messenger, Mozilla Firefox web browser, GIMP image editor, pluma text editor, VLC Media Player, as well as the entire LibreOffice office suite.
Download the operating system as a Live DVD ISO image that must be burned onto a DVD discs or written on a USB flash drive in order to boot it from the BIOS of the PC.
As with all openSUSE-Education releases, we based on the recently released openSUSE (13.1) with all the official online updates applied.
Quoting Marius Nestor on softpedia.com :
openSUSE Edu Li-f-e MATE is a surprise addition to the educational edition of the award winning and widely used openSUSE Linux operating system. The MATE desktop environment will provide for a faster working environment suitable for classroom use.
I want to share my experience in managing a personal hosted web server with openSUSE.
Two points, first.
- I’m not a computer professional, but an openSUSE addict since 1996;
- I will describe the use of hosted server, that is one that is not in your home, but somewhere in the cloud, but is still a hardware machine reserved to your own usage.
Why should I need my own server?
There are two main reasons.
- The first is fun. It’s fun to use openSUSE Linux to manage a server. It’s fun to ba able to say to friends “I have my own web site, I can manage one for you if you want”. It’s fun to be able to setup the computer to fit your precise needs, without having to cope with shared hosting never having the good php version or refusing ssh access. It’s fun to learn how to manage such a frightening beast, it’s fun to reach a new knowledge level.
- The second is friendliness and sharing. Nowadays, the cloud is everything. Internet is the key. Families are spread all over the world as are friends. To be able to share data, that is images, videos, comments, technical notes is essential. Managing it’s own server is the most effective way to do so.
Why a hosted server?
The first thing one try to do is manage it’s own server at home. It’s easy, most of the time any old hardware do the job -my first one was a 386 laptop with broken screen- (yes, a server do not need screen).
But one will pretty fast notice that the DSL line is not the best internet connection for this use. DSL is usually named “ADSL”, the “A” being for “Asymmetrical”. The speed of the data is approx 10,000 for downloading and only 1,000 for uploading (the real unit do not matter), that’s why it’s so difficult to send photos to a friend. So each time somebody wants to get something from your server at home, he will have to wait forever.
An other reason is cost. It’s not so cheap to have at home a computer running 7/7 and 24/24. Even is you can find a place where the noise is not a problem, power consumption is not that cheap. The simpler computer is like letting a bulb on all the time and my mother kept saying to me “please, switch off the light” :-).
I can’t know for you, but in France, where I live, hosting providers are really cheap. My own provider price list varies largely depending on the moment. Last year one could borrow a server for as low as $3 a month, just when I write it’s $8 for the smaller one. The one I use now cost me approximately $35 a month but have 4 processors, 8 threads, 2Tb Hard drive and 24Gb ram, that is much more than my desktop computer!
And for this price, I have 100Mbits symmetrical network, a fixed IP and a professional staff to maintain the hardware.
The drawback is that I have to manage the software myself entirely, but it’s exactly why I wanted a server so no complain on that :-).
Last word: When I say hosted, I don’t mean it’s you that have to provide the hardware. The hardware is property of the provider and maintained by him.
What do I need on my server?
Before doing anything in the life, one have to ask himself “why”? Same for a server. Right now I use my server to host my photo collection (more than 30,000 photos), my videos (much less in number, but very heavy in size), my personal wiki with all my technical notes and a blog. Also my personal mail server that I find to be more reliable than many professional ones. All this do not take more than 100Gb disk space, so there is a lot of free space where I can backup some data for friends or Linux groups I work with.
What is the real task?
I try to write down all what I do, let only to remember it myself! Of course it’s not very well organized, but my wiki page lists this, and I plan to discuss this with you now and in the future. Not being a professional, many things I do are not that good or not that smart. I always accept constructive criticisms and tips, and will be glad to receive them.
Partition and large disk
- Kimsufi-kernel-and-boot-setup-3 (old pages Kimsufi-kernel-and-boot-setup-2)
- OpenSUSE-small-server_basics-3 (old pages OpenSUSE-small-server_basics-2 OpenSUSE-small-server_basics)
- User creation/move/data move
- Configure Squirrel webmail (June 2011)
- Install Piwigo
- Archive mails in a way one can read the archives
- Display server’s logs
- Reinstal a Kimsufi server
- install php scripts
- Passphrase autentication with ssh
- Complete backup of a server
What I wont cover
As you see in this list, I use VirtualBox. This mean I use virtual server on my own server. I only begun to do so after several years of work, so I wont -yet- discuss this option here, I didn’t remove this item from the list, because I may at some point talk about it, incidentally.
The beginning: partitioning and installing
Installation on a hosted server is not as easy as on a local machine, because you don’t have any DVD access. The way you can access your computer depends on the provider. Mine gives the client a large choice of Linux distributions (among other systems), including openSUSE, and can deliver the server with a basic install and ssh access. One have also a rescue access (similar to openSUSE rescue access) to the server in case the machine do not boot anymore, but this is as friendly as is the rescue disk, better not have to use it too often.
Along the years, I have tested many partitioning schemes, and turn back to the simplest. Fact is on a remote server it’s difficult to manage several installations, like one do with dualboots –you don’t have access to a boot menu!
You can have one or two disks, the goal of two disks being to use raid 1 -my provider offers free change of damaged hardware- but one have to reconstruct it’s own raid. Using half the disk size as raid is pretty expensive, and simply having two disks for raid usually makes you shift to an other price list. I simply do not see any real reason to use raid on such server. After all if my personal server is out of business for some hours, nobody will notice (or nearly), We will see later than I use an other server as a backup.
So simple partitioning. On my own server I had problems with the default (provider) partitioning –yast didn’t like it- but I could reinstall the system and choose a simple configuration:
/dev/sda1 20Gb /
/dev/sda2 512Mb swap
/dev/sda3 1,8Tb /home
Notice I have a very small swap. I probably could have simply avoided to use swap (with 24Gb ram!), but I have this as default and kept it and it’s used by some application (496Kb), I don’t know why.
Actual system size is very low, so the 20Gb root size is much more than necessary, but like this the risk to have /tmp or /usr grow excessively is smaller and with 2Tb total size, why discuss?
Each provider have it’s own install interface, like any Linux distribution do, so I wont speak about it and say what is the result when, finally, you get the ssh prompt :-),
My provider provides a specific Kernel, also available as “net boot”. This is very interesting, because it’s always patched against all the problems, and, after all, you have never to change hardware on a hosted computer, and so one can reboot it’s server against net boot in case something go wrong. But the usual way is to boot normally, the hardware being provided with the kernel installed in /boot.
But, believe it or not, I was years before noticing the kernel was NOT part of default openSUSE install by the provider! It simply added manually the provider disk image. During these years I simply thought the hardware was not standard and that was the reason openSUSE couldn’t boot. I know today it’s wrong, because I had to use the standard kernel to make use of virtualization.
That said, I urge you to use the provider’s kernel if it exists, because it’s much more convenient and simplify eventual problems with the providers maintenance staff.
To get rid of the provider kernel I had to remove the /etc/grub.d/06-something-providersname config file and install the default kernel with YaST. Configure the boot system with YaST and reboot. The file in grubd is only used if it’s executable, so “chmod a-x” is enough to make it unavailable (and easily recovered if necessary).
Test and retest!
Before going to use the server in production, test it as long as necessary, two or three months not being ridiculous. Chance is you will reinstall several times during this period and it’s always better to have as few as possible work to do again. Don’t forget any critical error may need to use the recovery console or reinstall the system.
Write down the exact partition scheme. It can happen that reinstalling with the exact same partitions makes you able to recover at least the data untouched. Not sure, just a guess…
On my server the initial installation was extremely small, may be smaller than the minimal server install openSUSE gives. For sure, no YaST! You are lucky if you have zypper! May be you only have rpm!
So first things to install is zypper (you may have anyway some way to download rpm files, see providers help), then “zypper in yast”,
There having ncurse YaST is extremely handy, but yast2 (graphic) is much more, so it’s a good idea to install a minimum graphic system, then use “ssh -Y email@example.com” to have yast2 displayed locally.
With the server you must have a fixed IP. This mean you have an IP of your own. This may be the case -or not- for your home network. It means also you have to take double care of what you do, because you sign all your passage with your IP. This also mean most server in the net will trust you better exactly for the same reason, they know you.
Using certificates is an all other thing I wont discuss now.
The very first thing you have to do is update your system. The first install is always from initial data and a server have to be uptodate. As soon as you have zypper, do a “zypper ref & zypper up”, Be prepared to see things shine, you get a semi-professional bandwith, at least. Mine is 100Mb symetrical, pretty pleasant.
Having an automatic update through yast is challenged. A professional server manager may not like it (always fearing an update break his system), but on your case, I beg you may be weeks before connection as root on the server and updating is important, so go for it.
Don’t forget to install and launch sshd! Else at the first reboot you will have no mean to log in your server!
Depending of your initial install you will probably have to install a lot of things. My provider installed a very minimal system. I had to install nearly all by hand. Begin to install all the meaningful YaST modules (search for yast in software install). I had yast (mandatory!), but not yast2 (no gui) when using “ssh -X -C” to connect then yast2 is much friendlier. Notice that ssh -X seems to need a minimal X install. I use to install xfce4 (but not to run it at boot).
I didn’t write down all what I installed. A short list is probably: mc, w3m, yast2-gtk and qt, vsftpd (ftp), dovecot (mail imap/pop3), mrtg (http statistics), inn (news server), mailman (list server), spamassassin (spam fighter), apache2, ntp (time sync), tightVNC (remote admin). X and xfce may be useful some day. You even may have to install vim if you get only minimal vi.
Don’t forget to activate the necessary services in YaST, system, services (run levels).
Using patterns is friendly, but for example I ended with libreoffice and Gimp, not really necessary on a web server :-) (don’t forget eventually to remove them :-).
Do you need a firewall is an other controversial question. Your server is alone in it’s network, not a gateway. Unused ports are by the way closed. Open ports are managed par the application that listen. But Firewall is said to manage better than other applications things like attacks. It may also block things done by your others users (you will soon have to host friends). So may be better have a firewall.
Default openSUSE firewall is SuSEFirewall2. Most options are setup with the YaST2 module.
The main error to avoid is to launch the firewall before having setup the ssh opening – doing so you will lose the connection to the server…
Test the firewall: http://www.auditmypc.com/firewall-test.asp (but from the tested computer).
Add as allowed:
- smtp (postfix)
- http (apache)
To be able to use graphical applications is sometime mandatory. The easiest way is to allow X1 forwarding. This makes graphical apps to display right in your local console.
To allow X11 forwarding to work on modern distributions, you have to add
then log in with “ssh -X -C [-p <port>] url
Notice: I keep the “X11UseLocalhost no” in the list (but not activated thanks to #) because it’s often given as a working solution. But I was said that the problem is an obscure IPV6 problem and that “AddressFamily inet” instruct ssh to use IPV4 and is much more secure, so better use it.
To be continued. On the next article, we will discuss how to configure the server, give it a name, communicate with it, setup mysql (in fact mariadb) and finally apache :-).
Article Contributed by Jean-Daniel Dodin
oSC14 took place in Dubrovnik, Croatia, attracting a large number of Geekos to give and attend talks, organize and attend workshops and have fun at the parties. Compared to previous conferences the attendance at oSC14 was unfortunately on the lighter side of things but never the less we all had a great time. Since oSC13 we certainly had our trials and tribulations which we have left behind us and the mood was extremely positive with everyone being ready to move forward. The many hallway discussions had people discussing the new booth boxes, the progress on openQA and the staging model for Factory development. We shared articles on the event already, had 13K viewers on Bambuser and here we try to provide a bit of a closing overview! Read the rest of this entry »
Geekos gathered at beautiful Dubrovnik in Croatia for their annual meetup. They drunk, they conversed and they shared knowledge and progress of the project. They had fun! The openSUSE Conference’s final day and reporting is now detailed below. “The strength to change” was the moto of this conference and it served well its purpose. Many people found their strength and enthusiasm and started contributing to the project. We encourage you to participate. We welcome everyone interested in contributing to an awesome project. Read the rest of this entry »